Most Common Diseases in Older Adults: How to Prevent and Manage

What Are The Most Common Diseases In Older Adults

Being physically active and eating a healthy diet, along with making healthy lifestyle decisions like quitting smoking and losing weight, can help you reduce your risk of developing senior health issues, according to Jeanne Wei, MD, Ph.D., executive director of the Reynolds Institute on Aging at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock.

Your metabolism slows down as you age, and your immune system also deteriorates. It increases your vulnerability to some serious ailments. Therefore, it makes sense to be aware of the old age problems and illnesses that might affect you as you age so that you can recognize the signs early and receive the best care available.

Now, let’s take a closer look at the frequent ailments that affect the elderly and how to prevent them in this article.

Common health problems among older persons

It was written with older readers in mind. It also outlines the typical health concerns that older people deal with and the precautions that may be taken to avoid future troubles with the elderly.


The signs of arthritis include joint discomfort and swelling. The main symptoms of arthritis are stiffness and joint discomfort, which frequently get worse with age. The two most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Points where two or more bones touch are known as joints, and examples include the wrist, knuckles, hips, knees, and ankles. When you have arthritis, your joints are inflamed, hurting, and uncomfortable.

People of all ages can be affected, ranging from moderate to severe.  

What are the symptoms of arthritis?

Individuals with arthritis experience different symptoms. However, if you have arthritis, you most likely have joint-related symptoms like:

  • pain
  • inflammation in a joint
  • warmth and redness in a joint
  • a joint’s rigidity or decreased range of motion

Some individuals also experience issues unrelated to their joints. Other typical signs include:

  • tiredness
  • slim down
  • feeling ill

Why does arthritis develop?

Many different kinds of arthritis have unknown origins. Most arthritic conditions are considered to be brought on by immune system flaws that lead to the body attacking its joint tissues. It could run in the family genetically.

Other types of arthritis may be brought on by immune system issues or metabolic disorders like gout.

Reactive arthritis is a kind of arthritis brought on by an infection. It can appear at any age and is extremely difficult to diagnose, although younger individuals are more likely to experience it. The duration of reactive arthritis ranges from a few weeks to six months.

Arthritis prevention

Take the actions listed below to ward against arthritis.

  1. Maintain a healthy weight.
  2. Exercise
  3. regulate your blood sugar
  4. Avoid harm
  5. Stop smoking

Heart problem

The buildup of fatty deposits or plaques in the walls of the coronary arteries is the primary cause of most heart ailments. Coronary arteries round the exterior of the heart and provide the heart muscle with blood, nutrients, and oxygen.

Types of Heart Problem

Any disorder that affects the circulatory system is referred to as heart disease. Heart illness comes in various forms, each of which uniquely impacts the heart and blood arteries.

The sections that follow examine several forms of cardiac disease in further depth.

  1. Cardiovascular disease

The most typical kind of heart illness is coronary artery disease, sometimes called coronary heart disease.

It happens when plaque builds up in the arteries that carry blood to the heart. They get harder and narrower as a result. Cholesterol and other materials can be found in plaque.

  1. Coronary artery disease

Myocardial infarction, sometimes known as a heart attack, happens when the blood supply to the heart is cut off. The cardiac muscle may suffer partial damage or perhaps be destroyed.

  1. Mitral valve Stenosis

It occurs when the mitral valve’s flaps do not correctly seal. Rather, they enlarge the left atrium. Heart murmurs may result from this.

Although mitral valve prolapse seldom poses a life-threatening concern, certain patients may require medical attention.

  1. Arterial Stenosis

In aortic stenosis, the pulmonary valve is thick or fused and does not open correctly. It makes it difficult for the heart to pump blood into the aorta from the left ventricleTrusted Source.

  1. Cardiomyopathy with hypertrophy

When a hereditary issue impacts the heart muscle, this ailment often manifests. It typically has hereditary characteristics.

Muscle walls stiffen, making contractions more difficult. It impacts the heart’s capacity to receive and pump blood. There may occasionally be an obstacle.

There may be no symptoms, and many people go without a diagnosis. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, however, has the potential to get worse over time and cause a variety of cardiac issues.


The precise type of heart disease a person has will determine their symptoms. Additionally, certain cardiac diseases have no symptoms at all.

The symptoms listed below may point to a cardiac condition:

  1. Chest discomfort or angina
  2. Having trouble breathing
  3. Fatigue and lightheadedness
  4. Swelling due to fluid retention, or edema

Causes and Danger Signs

Heart disease manifests itself when:

  • injury to the heart in all or part
  • a condition affecting the blood arteries going to or coming from the heart
  • a lack of nutrients and oxygen reaching the heart
  • a difficulty with the heart’s rhythm

There may be a hereditary component in certain situations. However, some lifestyle choices and health issues might also raise the risk. 

These consist of the following:

  • high blood pressure 
  • elevated cholesterol
  • smoking
  • obesity and excess weight
  • diabetes
  • a history of heart disease in the family
  • eating options

Prevention of heart disorders

The techniques to stop heart illnesses are as follows.

  • Be more active physically.
  • Stop smoking.
  • Follow a heart-healthy diet.
  • Keep a healthy weight.
  • Don’t drink a lot of alcohol.
  • Manage stress


Bones that have osteoporosis are fragile and feeble. Because of their fragility, simple stresses like coughing or leaning over might destroy them. Patients with osteoporosis typically experience hip, wrist, and spine fractures.


Early on in the process of bone loss, there are often no symptoms. However, after osteoporosis has compromised your bones, you may experience the following signs and symptoms:

  • vertebral fracture or collapse resulting in back discomfort
  • height decline with time
  • a hunched position
  • a bone that fractures far more quickly than is typical


Your bone mass from your youth affects how likely you are to acquire osteoporosis. Peak bone mass varies by ethnic group and is partially hereditary. You have more bone “in the bank” and are less prone to develop osteoporosis as you age if your peak bone mass is larger.

Combating osteoporosis

The methods for preventing osteoporosis are listed below.

  • Drink moderate amounts of alcohol.
  • Stop smoking.
  • Take fewer sodas.
  • Create wholesome ways of living.
  • Exercise


A series of illnesses known as diabetes mellitus alter how the body utilizes blood sugar. The cells that make up the muscles and tissues rely heavily on glucose as an energy source. It serves as the primary fuel for the brain.

Each form of diabetes has a different primary etiology. However, diabetes can result in more than sugar in the blood regardless of the kind you have. Serious health issues can result from an excess of sugar in the blood.

Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are chronic diabetes diseases. Diabetes disorders, including gestational diabetes and prediabetes, may be reversible. When blood sugar levels are greater than usual, prediabetes develops.


Blood sugar levels influence the severity of diabetes symptoms. Some people may not exhibit symptoms, particularly if they have prediabetes, gestational diabetes, or type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes may appear suddenly and are more severe.

Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes can both cause the following symptoms:

  • Noticing a greater-than-normal thirst.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Weight loss without exerting effort.
  • Ketones are present in the urine.
  • Becoming worn out and fragile.
  • Irritated or experiencing other mood swings.
  • Having visual problems
  • and wounds that take a long time to heal.
  • Getting several infections, including vaginal, skin, and mouth infections.

What causes diabetes primarily?

Most kinds of diabetes lack a recognized precise etiology. Sugar builds up in the bloodstream in every situation. This occurs as a result of inadequate insulin production by the pancreas. Diabetes of either type can result from a mix of hereditary and environmental causes.

Diabetes Prevention

Even if you have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, making lifestyle changes like losing a little weight and being more active can help postpone or prevent the onset of the condition.

You can live without diabetes by taking the steps listed below.

  • Reduce your weight.
  • Be more active physically   
  • eat wholesome plant-based meals
  • Consume good fats.
  • Avoid fad diets and opt for healthier options.  

Alzheimer’s condition

Brain cells die due to Alzheimer’s disease, a degenerative neurological disorder. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, characterized by a progressive decline in mental, behavioral, and social capacities.

The condition develops gradually, beginning with modest memory loss and perhaps increasing to the loss of speech and sense of the surrounding environment.

Alzheimer’s disease impacts the parts of the brain involved in cognition, memory, and language. It can seriously limit one’s ability to do daily duties.

Alzheimer’s disease symptoms

The most prevalent early sign of Alzheimer’s is a problem remembering what you’ve just learned.

Our brains change as we age, like the rest of our bodies. Most people ultimately become aware of some cognitive slowdown and sporadic memory issues. However, significant memory loss, disorientation, and other significant changes in our mental functioning may be symptoms of dying brain cells.

What are the prime causes of Alzheimer’s disease?

Age-related brain changes and genetic, environmental, and lifestyle variables are likely contributing factors. Depending on the individual, each of these characteristics may play a different role in elevating or lowering the chance of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer’s disease prevention

The following strategies can be used to stave against Alzheimer’s.

  • Avoid smoking
  • Limiting alcohol consumption.
  • Eating a balanced, healthful diet.

Recommendations on managing medical conditions

Stress reduction

Over time, stress might make you more susceptible to depression, high blood pressure, obesity, and heart disease. This risk can be decreased by controlling and preventing it. One method to minimize or reduce stress is to plan.

Relational interaction

For health and well-being, social connections are important for people of all ages, but older people may require them even more for a fulfilling existence. In today’s generation, social functioning is essential for the growth of physical, sensory, and cognitive well-being.


Due to the link between nutrition and health, older people must maintain a nutrient-dense diet. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the quality of diet substantially impacts vascular function, bone health, eye health, immune function, and both physical and mental health.


A healthy body and mind are necessary for sound sleep. A restful night’s sleep improves concentration and memory, helps your body repair any day’s worth of cell damage, and revitalizes your immune system.


Older people frequently experience physical, social, psychological, and financial difficulties. Due to a deterioration in their physical and mental capabilities, aging persons become dependent. Many older people experience emotional problems, such as loneliness and isolation. Losing a spouse and other important family members may make the individual stressed, depressed, and anxious.

Making healthy modifications to one’s way of life is vital if one wants to support the elderly in maintaining their independence and physical fitness. It entails scheduling each day with an emphasis on finishing more important things. They can keep a strong sense of control over their life.

Further Readings

The Silent Struggles of Seniors: Understanding the Biggest Fears of the Elderly

Problems Faced by Old Age at Home and Our Society